ADDIE model

Learning objectives 

At the end of this learning unit, you will be able to:

  • Define Instructional Design.
  • Describe the ADDIE model.
  • Describe the tasks performed in each phase of the ADDIE model.

What is instructional design?

“It is important to onboard the new recruits as soon as possible!”

“Our sales team needs to learn and start using the new software in a month’s time!"

"All employees in our organization should be familiar with the corporate communication policies!"

“How can we quickly explain to our marketing personnel the effective ways to establish our brand presence in the market?”

It is very likely for you to have heard these statements at your workplace.

To address these needs, you may take help of training, mentoring or process upgrades. Irrespective of the training approach that you follow, Instructional Design will most probably be at the core of all these trainings. So, what exactly is Instructional Design. Is it just another fancy term for developing learning solutions?

Defining Instructional Design

Instructional Design is the systematic development of instructional material and activities using learning and instructional theories to ensure the quality of instruction. It is the complete process of analysis of learning needs and the development of a delivery mechanism to meet those needs. It includes design, development and evaluation of instructional material and activities. We will start this module by talking about the ADDIE model and further take you through other instructional design models, taxonomies and strategies that you can use while creating your documentation project.

 

Julia is a documentation specialist, who is primarily involved in creating all documentation and training projects in her organization. She has been using ClickLearn for all her documentation requirements and loves the ease and benefits that it provides her.

However, she feels that she can add more value to her trainings by defining clear learning objectives. Also, she wants to streamline the documentation process by doing a proper analysis and design before the actual development of the learning portal begins. There has been some rework in the past due to lack of proper design of the trainings.

She discusses these issues with Martin, her friend, who is a corporate training consultant. Martin mentions about using Instructional Design principles while creating her trainings. Julia has not heard about this fancy term before and is interested to know more about it from Martin.

 
ADDIE model – a systematic approach

ADDIE which stands for Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation and Evaluation, is the systematic approach to creating instructional material and activities. ADDIE aims for a learner centred approach to instruction, which is distinct from the traditional teacher-centred approach to instruction. Every component of the instruction is governed by the learning outcomes, which are determined after a thorough analysis of the learners’ needs. The five phases of the ADDIE process sometimes overlap, and the process is sometimes iterative. However, the phases provide a dynamic and flexible guideline for authors to develop effective and efficient instruction. 

As per this model, it is important that you do a detailed analysis and design of the instructional material before going ahead with the development work. If you have not thought about any aspect of the project completely, you may need to be change it once the course development is in process, such as while authoring or video shooting. This might result in wasting a great deal of time, money and effort. 

Click on the elements below to explore more!

 

Analysis

Needs, requirements, tasks, participants’ current capabilities.

 

Design

Learning objectives, delivery format, activities & exercises.

 

Development

Create a prototype, develop course materials, review, pilot session.

 

Implement

Training, implementation, tools in place, observation.

 

Evaluate

Awareness, knowledge, behavior, results.

ADDIE phase: analyze

The Analyze phase is the foundation of all other phases of instructional design. As the name suggests, you analyze the training or learner needs, identify the source of this need, such as the lack of specific skills, and determine possible learning solutions.

Some of the questions answered and activities performed during this phase are: 

Who are your learners? Find out who your audience is, their existing knowledge, learning characteristics, learning goals and the environment in which they will apply their learning.
What are you trying to achieve through your instruction? Define the need for and the purpose of the training. This defines the overall goal and rationale for the training.
What knowledge, skills and attitude do you need to teach? Determine what you need to teach to meet the learners needs.
How much content do you need in your instruction? Set the scope of the content that you will cover in terms of the time required for training, the number of lessons and the broad content areas.

 

You generally use specific research techniques, such as audience analysis, job analysis and task analysis in this phase. Instructional goals and the list of tasks that you plan to teach to the learners are the outputs of this phase, which also serve as the inputs for the design phase.

ADDIE phase: design

Next, is the design phase, where you use the outcomes of the Analyze phase to plan a strategy for developing the instruction. During this phase, you outline the methods to reach the instructional goals defined during the Analyze phase.

Some of the questions answered and activities performed in the phase are as listed below: 

What are your objectives? You define the general areas of learning and goals in the form of specific measurable objectives.
What skills, knowledge and attitudes are you trying to develop? The skills and knowledge are determined by the objectives. You develop a framework for developing the content.
What resources and strategies will you use in your instruction? You select the delivery methods, sequence of instruction and activities to match the learning outcomes and make instruction effective.
How will you assess that the learners have met the objectives of the instruction? You develop the assessment methods and test items, which should match to the objectives. This ensures that the intended outcomes are measured by the assessment.


The outputs of the design phase are the inputs for the develop phase.

ADDIE phase: develop

The Develop phase uses the outputs of both the Analyze and Design phases and builds on them. The purpose of this phase is to generate the session/lesson plans and their relevant materials. During this phase, you develop the instruction, the media to be used in the instruction, and any supporting documentation. This may also include the practice material, workbooks, or slides.

Some of the elements of the Develop phase are:
  • Creating the presentation slides and learner handouts
  • Writing out the instructional text
  • Creating the supporting documentation
  • Shooting the video sequences
  • Deciding and creating graphics/animation

ADDIE phase: implement

The Implement phase refers to the actual delivery of the instruction, which could be classroom-based, computer-based or Web-based. The purpose of this phase is the effective and efficient delivery of instruction.

Implementation may involve some or all of the following:
  • Informing the learners how to make the best use of the training.
  • Conducting classroom instruction using slides and training materials.
  • Coordinating and managing Web based or distance learning programs.

ADDIE phase: evaluate

The evaluate phase measures the effectiveness and efficiency of the instruction. It is of two types: Formative and Summative.

Formative Evaluation:

Formative evaluation is during and between the various phases of ADDIE, such as after Analyze, during Design, or after Implement. The purpose of this type of Evaluation is to continually improve the instruction before the final version is implemented.

Summative Evaluation:

Summative evaluation usually occurs after the final version of instruction is implemented. It is used to assess the overall effectiveness of the instruction. Data from the summative evaluation is useful feedback to improve the instructional program

Summary

In this learning unit, you learned to:

  • Define Instructional Design.
  • Describe the ADDIE model.
  • Describe the tasks performed in each phase of the ADDIE model